BIOFEEDBACK narzędziem wspierającym proces rehabilitacji osób po wypadkach

rehabilitacja-neurologicznafizjoterapiarehabilitacja-funkcjonalnanauka-chodu_1



http://bcove.me/1fs3dd7l

Zaprezentowany powyżej link zaprowadzi Państwa do filmu ukazującego amerykański eksperyment wspierający proces osób poszkodowanych w wypadkach drogowych. Osoby z urazam,i narządów ruchu w toku trzytygodniowej terapii rehabilitacyjnej wspartej BIOFEEDBACKIEM  wstały z wózków i zaczęły samodzielną rehabilitację ruchową

Brzmi aż niewiarygiodnie ....

Tym bardziej więc zachęcam do lektury

Z Szacunkiem

Dariusz Wyspiański

NEUROPSYCHOTERAPIA

HRV BIOFEEDBACK narzędziem zwiększania efektywności w pracy psycho-manualnej



Szanowni Państwo,

Pozwalam sobie na zacytowanie "abstractu" naukowego artykułu, podsumowującego prowadzone  w Malezji badania dot. wykorzystania HRV Biofeedbacku do zwiększania efektywności w pracy bazującej na czynnosciach poznawczo-manualnych

Z Szacunkiem

D.Wyspiański


Heart Rate Variability (HRV) biofeedback: A new training approach for operator’s performance enhancement
Auditya Purwandini Sutarto, Muhammad Nubli Abdul Wahab, Nora Mat Zin

"Abstract: The widespread implementation of advanced and complex systems requires predominantly operators’ cognitive functions and less importance of human manual control. On the other hand, most operators perform their cognitive functions below their peak cognitive capacity level due to fatigue, stress, and boredom. Thus, there is a need to improve their cognitive functions during work. The goal of this paper is to present a psychophysiology training approach derived from cardiovascular response named heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback. Description of resonant frequency biofeedback - a specific HRV training protocol - is discussed as well as its supported researches for the performance enhancement. HRV biofeedback training works by teaching people to recognize their involuntary HRV and to control patterns of this physiological response. The training is directed to increase HRV amplitude that promotes autonomic nervous system balance. This balance is associated with improved physiological functioning as well as psychological benefits. Most individuals can learn HRV biofeedback training easily which involves slowing the breathing rate (around six breaths/min) to each individual’s resonant frequency at which the amplitude of HRV is maximized. Maximal control over HRV can be obtained in most people after approximately four sessions of training. Recent studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of HRV biofeedback to the improvement of some cognitive functions in both simulated and real industrial operators...."


NEUROPSYCHOTERAPIA

Oni stosują BIOFEEDBACK - "RHEIN NECKAR LOWEN" - Piłka Ręczna



"RHEIN NECKAR LOWEN", to słynna niemiecka drużyna piłki ręcznej, znana także z tego, że występowali w niej znani polscy zawodnicy (min. bramkarz Sławomir SZMAL). "LWY" od kilku lat z powodzeniem wykorzystują BIOFEEDBACK w modalnościach GSR i HRV do przedmeczowej koncentracji. To bardzo interesujące albowiem w światowym "HANDBALLU" BIOFEEDBACK nie jeszcze rozpowszechniony.

Z Szacunkiem

Dariusz Wyspiański

BIOFEEDBACK w terapii PTSD



Szanowni Państwo,

PTSD (Nabyty Zespół Stresu Pourazowego) coraz częściej dotyczy także naszych żołnierzy uczestniczących w zagranicznych misjach. Poniżej prezentuję artykuł autorstwa amerykańskiego badacza Lee Gerdesa dot. wykorzystania BIOFEEDBACKU w działaniach terapeutycznych osób z PTSD.

Z Szacunkiem

Dariusz Wyspiański



"PTSD: How to put your thinking brain back in charge

Lee Gerdes

As a friend of mine is given to say, "none of us gets out of this life alive." Top of mind today are the soldiers and others who are valiantly fighting for our freedom. They have chosen an endeavor where danger, crisis and trauma surround them. But in life – as in war – there are no unwounded soldiers. Our police and firefighters experience physical and psychological wounds each day. Those of us going through life in a more "ordinary" way – mothers, fathers, bankers, laborers, athletes, children – also face our share of challenges. For many of us, the scar tissue grows, but for far too many of us, the pain doesn't heal.
It is a rare individual who escapes the travails of severe trauma. Traumas can be physical or emotional. They can happen before birth, at birth, or anywhere along the way.

My own work with Brainwave Optimization™ began when I experienced trauma – four youth with a baseball bat assaulted me when I was locking a churchyard gate. For nearly a decade, I was a prisoner of PTSD: jumpy, irritable, quick to anger, headache-y, sweaty at night, hope-deprived, and sleepless. I was increasingly detached and depressed. I tried everything you can think of with very little relief. Throughout it all, I knew that the person I had become was not the real me. That's when the search for a solution began.

Nearly every one of our 35,000 clients today comes to us as a result of trauma. They ostensibly come to us for addictions, depression, anxiety or stress, sleeplessness, impaired thinking, chronic pain or concussion – but in the end, all of these are the result of a trauma - or several traumas. Many think they are abnormal or weak; some even have been told they are "crazy" – or to just get over it. When we are able to show them a picture of their brainwave patterns, there is often tremendous relief that the cause has been identified – and even more so when they understand that there's a likely solution.

When we begin to understand brain functioning, we begin to understand that not all PTSD is alike. Some of us have an escalated parasympathetic nervous system that causes us to go into a freeze response. This is because we have experienced a trauma of abandonment; a situation we could do nothing about. Perhaps in war, it was being near a buddy who was killed and not being able to do anything about it. In life, it can be emotional detachment from an alcoholic parent.

Others of us have a heightened sympathetic nervous system that causes us to go into fight-or-flight behaviors. This is because we experienced a trauma of infringement; one in which something or someone threatened or abused us to the point we wanted to fight back or run away. The majority of people with PTSD are sympathetic dominant.

Either way, the brain assumes the patterns it needs to survive - the nervous system responds and physical and emotional disruption occur as automatic responses from the brain.

I am living proof that this is a prison you can escape. But not with "outside-in" treatments like pills, alcohol, marijuana, talking about it, or physical exercises that excite the sympathetic system.

The most harmful of current "treatments" are exposure therapy or virtual reality exposure therapy. Contrary to some long-held beliefs, re-living the trauma does not make it go away. In most cases, it only serves to further embed the trauma, and hence, the destructive patterns. We see this as plain as day when we look at brainwave patterns and view the degree of functional imbalance caused by these modalities.

It's only in very recent years, that science has come to understand the brain's role on behavior. With Brainwave Optimization, we focus on the role of the brain in one's ability to regulate behaviors. It was only in 1998 that a researcher (Panskepp) connected neural structures with specific emotional systems. From there, others like Stephen Porges and Peter Sterling began to understand that it was not only those internal connections, but also how readily we were able to adjust our behavior to the situation at hand that made all the difference.

Brainwave Optimization understands what's going on inside the brain that drives certain behaviors and increase the brains resilience so it can adapt to external demands.

The only way to escape the prison is to directly and effectively address the source of the issue – your brain. According to a 2004 study by Cloitre, et al, "routine psychiatric interventions are quite ineffective in helping people manage their emotions and the best that medications generally can do is dull emotional arousal of any kind, thereby robbing people of pain and pleasure simultaneously."

Returning soldiers, veterans from prior wars, those who have been raped, abused or assaulted – or who have witnessed an assault or death – often do not want to talk about it. That's your brain protecting you; telling you not to talk about it. With Brainwave Optimization, there is no need to talk. You relax in a chair while your brain "speaks" to itself. In fact, we help you "get your head out of the way so your brain can do the work."

We have made huge steps in just the past decade in understanding the brain. It is time for us now to step out of age-old "treatments" that just don't work. New knowledge calls for radical shifts in how we heal ourselves – and ultimately, how we heal the world around us..."

NEUROPSYCHOTERAPIA

BIOFEEDBACK - udostępniona praca magisterska

SzanownI Państwo,

W sieci została udostępniona praca magisterska autorstwa Pani DOMINIKI RAUDZIS, dotycząca fundamentów BIOFEEDBACKU.
Stanowi ona wartościowy zbiór naukowo zweryfikowanych informacji o podstawach tej nauki i praktyki terapeutycznej
Załączam link do pracy :
http://www.fizjoterapeutom.pl/attachments/article/382/Biofeedback%20-%20praca%20mgr%20Dominika%20Raudzis.pdf

Z Szacunkiem

D.Wyspiański

NEUROPSYCHOTERAPIA

Filozoficzna podbudowa BIOFEEDBACKU....

Bhagavad_Gita_1_1_2013

Szanowni Państwo,
Pozwalam sobie na zaprezentowanie artykułu autorstwa p.SAROJA SHARMY z indyjskiego BANARAS HINDU UNIVERSITY. Autor łączy założenia hinduizmy i jogi, z fundamentami praktyki BIOFEEDBACKU. Jest to niewątpliwie ciekawe podejście, choć z pewnością tradycje hinduistyczne nie są jedynym fundamentem filozoficznym BIOFEEDBACKU - wręcz przeciwnie, uważam że każda kultura może w swym duchowym dziedzictwie odwołać się do tradycji medytacji, kontemplacji i technik oddechowych stabilizujących pracę organizmu.
Fizjologiczny komponent tego rodzaju praktyk ukierunkowany na utrzymanie homeostazy procesów fizjologicznych, stanowi naturalne odwołanie się do współczesnych, naukowo uzasadnionych praktyk NEUROTERAPII i BIOFEEDBACKU

Z Szacunkiem

Dariusz Wyspiański


PHILOSOPHICAL BASIS OF BIOFEEDBACK

SAROJ SHARMA

Department of Basic Principles Institute of Medical Sciences,

Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi – 221 005.

ABSTRACT: Modern Biofeedback Technique is the implementation of psychosomatic

interrelationship in respect to health and disease, the psychophysical principle is utilized for

psychosomatic self regulation. The basic concept of biofeedback training are well considered in

the Vedas, and Yoga system of Indian philosophy. The concept of biofeedback training depends

on the ancient philosophical concept of mindbody integration.

INTRODUCTION

According to modern “Biofeedbacktraining” various psychosomatic diseases

like hypertension headache asthma backache etc. can be treated and controlled with self

control, self regulation and meditation. Biofeedback training reconnects the mindbody and spirit. It makes a person aware that he is alone responsible for the

maintenance and control of his own health.Meditation and relaxation have been used in a number of clinical studies to achieve areductions in blood pressure in patients

suffering from essential hypertension, gladman et al (1973) and green et al (1974-

1977) studied the significance of biofeedback training for anxiety and tension,

reduction. These workers observed significant physiological change following

specific feedback therapy. The success of biofeedback training depends on creating a

harmonious interaction of the mind andbody. During the process of biofeedback therapy, it has been observed that pulse rate, plod pressure and muscle tone can be significantly reduced by continuous practice of meditation was beneficial in the reduction

of nervousness, insomnia irritability pulserate and heart-disease.

Continuous practice of meditation reduced the frequency and intensity of angina pain in

comparison to drug therapy group. The use of biofeedback meditation and other yogic practices may provide useful means of altering physiological response assumed to

be associated with complex psychological process in psychosomatic disorders.

Udupa et al (1978) also noticed a significant improvement following savasana therapy in hypertension cases. Bhagvad gita has also laid emphasis on self control, self-regulation

of various sense-organs. The purification of mind has been considered most important

for spiritual development gita repeatedly claims that evil effect of desires and

attachments, anger and greed as the three gates of hell.

Bhagavad Gita

Bhagavad gita advocates the necessity for

self-purification. If is only possible by the

purification of body, mind in tellect and

sense-organs (Gita V.II). All the objects of

the sense organs are the root cause of

miseries of the world. (Gita IX, 33). The

lack of awareness of reality, the sense of

Pages 240 - 243

2

egoism or ‘I am-ness’, attractions and repulsions

towards objects and the strong

desire for life are the great afflictions which

are responsible for all the miseries of life.

Brown (1970), Kamiya (1968) and Nowvis

(1970) observed that many persons report

entering a ‘Quasimeditational state of

consciousness during alpha enhacement

feedback. According to Jackson beatly et al

this state of consciousness often called the

‘alpha experience’ is said to be a pleasant ,

relaxed and serene state characterized by a

loss of body and time awareness, an absence

of thought and egolessness. This state is

similar to ‘Sthitprajna’ of Bhagvad gita.

Excessive desire for material things anger,

grief, greed, fear and excessive exhilaration

effect the bodily humors resulting in various

diseases like hypertension, coronary heart

disease, autoimmune disease etc. Indian

philosophy has reportedly emphasized the

significance of excessive material

possession as the root cause of stress and

strain which ultimately effect mind and

body. Both modern scientists and ancient

philosophers advocate that many

psychological factors like lust (Kama), fear

(Bhaya), sorrow (Soka), jeolousy (Irsya),

anger Krodha) anxiety (Cinta), guilt

(Manoglani) frustration (Nairasya),

depression (Sattva- hani), and mental fatigue

(Mansika srama) have been included as

precipitating factors of psychosomatic

disorders.

Influence of Yoga

The basic concept of biofeedback is mainly

related to yoga system of India philosophy.

The object of Yoga sutra is cittvrittinirodh.

In other words Yoga is the inhibition of the

modification of mind. In order to control

citta or (mind) Patanjali has told eight fold

means of Yoga. The eight-fold methods of

yoga as emumerated in Yoga sutra are (1)

Yama (restraints) (2) Niyama or the

principles of he development of the

personality, (3) Asana or bodily postures, (4)

pranayama or breath control, (5) Pratyahara

or the withdrawl of the senses, (6) Dharna

or attention (7) Dhyana or meditation, (8)

Samadhi or concentration, asanas advocate

the adaptation of various bodily postures

conducive to bodily health, mental

equilibrium and spiritual development.

Pranayama is a method to regulate the

breathing and thus one can control the

physiological process. Pratyahara is the

withdrawl of the senses from the wordly

objects, In brief pratyahara is a technique of

controlling senses by mind. Dharana means

holding the object of attention before the

mind dhyana is the contemplation of the

object without any break or disturbance,

thoughtless stage of mind is Samadhi stage.

A sadhaka who practices Samadhi is not

aware of any object except the object of

meditation. There is no cognition in the act

of awareness. It is at this stage that the yogi

is capable of stopping all the vrittis of the

citta Yoga vasistha has given maximum

importance on breath control, self criticism

and observance of right conduct in order to

achieve the state of complete bliss.

Yoga is a technique for the path of selfrealization.

It is aimed at obtaining

liberation through perfect control of body

and mind.

In yoga sutra (11:15), Patanjali has advised

that pranayama should be practiced

regularly to attain good meditation, normal

heath and mental peace. A mental stress is

reflected upon the body through the nervous

system and therapy produces somatic

manifestations, a mental stress can bring

even organic changes in the body. Various

mental and somatic disease can be avoided

and a perfect balance between mind and

Pages 240 - 243

3

body can be attained by the practice of

various exercises described in patanjali yoga

sutra (I:34). According to Vedanta mental

diseases are the end result of the imbalance

of the rajas and tama while somatic diseases

arise due to imbalanace of the tridosa-vata,

pitta and kapha. The mind is the cause of

bondange and liberation. The mind acts as

director and co-ordinator of the ten senseorgans

of the body. Vedanta accepts a close

inter-relationship and inter dependence of

the body and mind.

Patel et al (1975) also observed significant

fall in blood pressure following Yoga and

biofeedback therapy. Benson et al (1974)

and Shapiro (1976) had made extensive

attempt to regulate the complete

psychological process by biofeedback

therapy. Jain and Buddhism also accepted

the importance of self control and selfpurification

for the attainment of highest

object of life which leads to moksa.

CONCLUSIONS

In brief Indian philosophy forms the basis of

further investigation in the field of

psychology and medicine. Te approach of

biofeedback involves many disciplines and

the main areas of discussion in this context

are states of consciousness, creativity

imagination attention and vigilance ancient

Indian thinkers have laid emphasis on the

analysis of inner self which develops

capabilities of analysing the wordly

miseries, the main object of meditation,

relaxation and self regulation is to evolve

human personality form jada to pure and

fine consciousness.

To conclude, due to the resurgence of

interest in self-exploration and self

realization, it will be possible to develop a

synthesis of ancient Indian philosophy and

biofeedback training as tools for self

regulation.

Biofeedback theory is the application of

Indian philosophy in the modern science and

technology, it is evident that biofeedback

training depends on the ancient

philosophical concept of mind –body

integration. Mind –body is not divided.

Ancient and modern scholars have accepted

that physical and mental aspects of life do

not stand in isolation but are skillfully

blended into a harmonious whole.

NEUROPSYCHOTERAPIA

Oni stosują BIOFEEDBACK - "VANCOUVER CANUCKS" (NHL)

canucks
"Vancouver Canucks" - National Hockey League Elite Team from Canada

Drodzy Państwo,

Do grona profesjonalistów sportowych z "górnej pólki" dołaczył jakiś czas temu hokejowy "team" VANCOUVER CANUCKS z Kanady. Poniżej, krótki opis metodologii neuroterapeutycznej z jakiej korzystają.

Z Szacunkiem

Dariusz Wyspiański



"Vancouver Canucks Race to the Stanley Cup – Is it all in their Minds?

The Vancouver Canucks National Hockey League team just made it into the Stanley Cup Finals for the first time in almost 20 years. The Canucks, under the direction of sports psychologist Len Zaichkowski, have been using a new state of the art technology called the Mind Room. The Mind Room (using instruments from Thought Technology) uses biofeedback and neurofeedback instruments to assess and train athletes to control their stress and attention in competitive situations. The Canucks have several older players who are performing at their highest levels more consistently. Professional and Olympic athletes have been using biofeedback and neurofeedback for years to achieve successful performance outcomes. Athletes from the National Football League, World Cup Soccer, Major League Baseball and numerous Olympic Teams (Indian Shooting, Canadian Skiing) have utilized biofeedback and neurofeedback to gain championships in their sports.

Biofeedback uses physiological measures of muscle tension (EMG), skin perspiration (GSR), temperature , respiration and heart rate variability. Neurofeedback, or EEG biofeedback assesses unhealthy brainwave (EEG) patterns to determine if an athlete is anxious, in the peak attention zone or over-focused and trains their brain to be able to maintain the optimal pattern required for peak performance. The Mind Room combines biofeedback and neurofeedback measures with game video that can be used to train several athletes at one. In addition, using the Mind Room concepts, players are less like to suffer severe injuries and recover from these injuries, including concussions, more quickly and with better long-term results. These training benefits result in greater player performance and durability, often resulting in Olympic Gold Metals and Team Championships.

The use of biofeedback and neurofeedback are becoming more frequent in sport psychology, especially in the area of concussion assessment (using QEEG assessment) and treatment. Athletes in contact sports, especially hockey and football are increasingly experiencing concussions which not only can significantly interfere with their teams success (i.e. Sidney Crosby in the NHL), but also negatively affect their future sport success and life health.

Additional information is available in a book to be released in June 2011 called “Applications of Biofeedback & Neurofeedback in Sport Psychology” edited by Ben Strack, Ph.D. and Michael Linden, Ph.D., published by the Association of Applied Physiology and Biofeedback (www.aapb.org).

Dr. Linden is a Clinical Psychologist and Nationally Certified in Neurofeedback and Biofeedback. He is the director of The Attention Learning Center, which has offices located in San Juan Capistrano, Irvine and Carlsbad, California."


NEUROPSYCHOTERAPIA

SAMURAJSKI MIECZ NARZĘDZIEM BIOFEEDBACKU...?

Iaido_hands

Szanowni Państwo,

Niniejszym pozwalam sobie na zacytowanie niezwykle błyskotliwego artykułu pochodzącego z wortalu "Martial Art Development". Autor porównuje praktykę "drogi miecza" z technikami BIOFEEDBACKU. Dla mnie, zarówno jako Neuroterapeuty, jak i Budoki na codzień obcującego z samurajskim mieczem, artykuł ten brzmi niezwykle trafnie i wiarygodnie.
Praktyka miecza jest drogą prowadzącą do poczucia harmonii i psychofizjologicznej homeostazy. Adept "sztuki miecza" (kenjutsu; iaido) posługując się swym orężem doskonale, poprzez czucie kinestetyczno-ruchowe, wyczuwa jakość swego ruchu. Miecz "przekazuje" sygnały na temat stopnia zharmonizowania ruchu, jego zgodności z przyjętym i oczekiwanym wzorcem.
Warto dodać, iż formy treningu indywidualnego z mieczem (kata), mają charakter doświadczeń absolutnie transowych, w toku których następuje pełna homeostaza organizmu i stan w psychologii pozytywnej znany jako FLOW ("Przepływ"). Analogia do efektu równowagi psychofizjologicznej, jakiej doświadcza się w toku treningu BIOFEEDBACK, jest więc oczywista, czego autor niniejszego bloga wielokrotnie doświadczył...

Z Szacunkiem

Dariusz Wyspiański



"The Secret of The Talking Sword
Source "Martial Art Development" website

When learning the art of the sword, we are often told that we should wield it as an extension of our own body. The sword’s edge and tip should exhibit all the speed, power and grace of the hand that holds it, for instance. That is a fine objective—but what if the hand has no speed, power or grace to start with?

According to one classical perspective, no student should be given sword instruction until they have first qualified themselves to learn, by demonstrating mastery of barehanded technique. In some styles of martial arts, this might require thousands of hours of study.

Narrowing the focus during these initial months, or years of training might seem to benefit everyone involved. It can, and frequently it does. However, in some cases, it will actually hinder the student’s overall progress. The sword itself is an excellent instructor, to those who will heed its lessons.

What is Biofeedback?
Biofeedback is a method of expanding conscious awareness into realms that are typically governed by the unconscious mind. The subject of biofeedback training is instrumented with equipment that amplifies, records and displays biometric data, such as body temperature, heart rate, and skin conductivity. Experiments have shown that, if a subject is made aware of small fluctuations in these ostensibly involuntary processes (i.e. with the help of biofeedback equipment), that subject can more easily bring these processes under their conscious control.

Biofeedback machines, such as an electroencephalograph (EEG) or digital thermometer, can be expensive and complex. They can also be simple and cheap. Bicycle training wheels, which allow a rider to tip over slightly without immediately falling down, provide a useful form of biometric feedback. In fact, an intelligent person can press nearly any tool into service as a biofeedback device—including their sword.

The Sword as Biofeedback Device
A sword is a natural amplifier, which consistently and impartially reflects the mistakes of its user. If the swordsman’s grip and cut are incorrect, his sword may wobble, or even ring. When the position of his wrist is wrong by one inch, the tip of the blade may be wrong by one foot. If his body movement is slightly convoluted or imprecise, a good sword helps to make that obvious; with a tassel, even more so.

According to an old Chinese proverb, “A one-inch error at the start becomes a thousand-mile error by the end.” A sword can help prevent small errors from escaping its user’s attention, and thereby train the hand that holds it, and the mind which directs it..."

NEUROPSYCHOTERAPIA

BIOFEEDBACK jako narzędzie treningu mentalnego profesjonalnych sportowców

London+Olympic+Games+2012+Opening+Ceremony+TJLsu1oFoJ3l

Drodzy Państwo,

Pozwalam sobie na przedstawienie krótkiego artykułu, po raz kolejny wskazującego na przydatność BIOFEEDBACKU w mentalnym treningu sportowców z absolutnie najwyższego poziomu wyczynu.

Pozostaję z Szacunkiem

Dariusz Wyspiański



"BIOFEEDBACK in Sports
(bio-medical.com)

Biofeedback training has been widely recognized as an excellent way to promote a relaxed state for many sports applications. Many studies have been done on using biofeedback as a method of relaxation and to increase performance.

Athletes should ask themselves “Can I perform better in a relaxed state?” If it is the bottom of the ninth, with the bases loaded, the athlete needs to be able to clear their mind and focus on the performance. Anxiety and high stress can cause many athletes to “choke” in clutch situations. By learning to alter their mental and physiological state with a few simple relaxation techniques they tend to perform better. Biofeedback devices are great tools in achieving these results.

There have been several Olympic athletes, NHL hockey teams, professional football teams, golfers and more, that have credited biofeedback training as a factor in their success.

Some teams have even set up mental training centers where trainers monitor the brainwaves and other physical functions such as surface EMG, temperature, GSR, heart rate, and respiration. This helps the players learn to reduce performance anxiety and improve their ability to focus under stress – giving them the “mental edge” they need to win.

There are devices like the Resperate, that promote meditative breathing patterns and very simple to use items such as the GSR2, that measures minute changes in skin conductance or resistance and conveys the stress level by an audio tone. These devices are easy to use and very effective. Organizations and teams have also used more sophisticated systems that measure multiple physiological measurements at once for a picture of the body’s stress level.

More recently there are products being introduced to help speed up reaction time. Reaction time can be crucial in many sporting events and in the Olympics millisecond can be the difference between gold and bronze..."

NEUROPSYCHOTERAPIA